The economic structure of the Elbe-Elster district is characterised by a modern agriculture and food sector as well as a top-performing metal and electrical industry. The town of Finsterwalde is part of the regional growth area West Lusatia.
Key industries in the district are located primarily in the district town of Herzberg (Elster), as well as the towns of Finsterwalde/Massen, Bad Liebenwerda and Elsterwerda, which offer attractive local conditions with different profiles. Well-known companies in the district include the Kjellberg Group and the UESA Group, Reiss Büromöbel GmbH and ODW Frischprodukte GmbH.
The Elbe-Elster district offers a high standard of living with an extensive cycle path network and comprehensive health and well-being programmes, as well as high recreational value with a wide variety of museums, castles and stately homes. An example of this is the spa town of Bad Liebenwerda.